Archive for January, 2011


 

Memorial of Saint John Bosco, priest

John Bosco (Italian: Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco; 16 August 1815[1] – 31 January 1888), was an Italian Catholic priest, educator and writer of the 19th century, who put into practice the convictions of his religion, dedicating his life to the betterment and education of street children, juvenile delinquents, and other disadvantaged youth and employing teaching methods based on love rather than punishment, a method that is known as the preventive system.[2] A follower of the spirituality and philosophy of Francis de Sales, Bosco dedicated his works to him when he founded the Society of St. Francis de Sales (more commonly known as the Salesian Society or the Salesians of Don Bosco). Together with Maria Domenica Mazzarello, he founded the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, a religious congregation of nuns dedicated to the care and education of poor girls, and popularly known as Salesian Sisters. In 1876 Bosco founded a movement of laity, the Salesian Cooperators, with the same educational mission to the poor.[3] In 1875 he published Bibliofilo Cattolico – Bollettino Salesiano Mensuale (The Catholic Book Lover – Salesian Monthly Bulletin.)[4][5] The Bulletin has remained in continuous publication, and is currently published in 50 different editions and 30 languages.[4]

Bosco succeeded in establishing a network of organizations and centres to carry on his work. In recognition of his work with disadvantaged youth, he was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1934.

 Life

Bosco was born in the evening of 16 August 1815 in Becchi.[6] He was the youngest son of Francesco Bosco (1780–1817) and Margeret Occhiena. He had two elder brothers, Antonio and Giuseppe (1813–1862).[6] The Bosco of Becchi were farmhands of the Moglia Family. John Bosco was born into a time of great shortage and famine in the Piedmontese countryside, following the devastation wrought by the Napoleonic wars and a drought in 1817.[7]

Margaret played a strong role in Bosco’s formation and personality,[8] and was an early supporter of her son’s ideals.[9][10] When he was young, he would put on shows of his skills as a juggler, magician and acrobat[11] with prayers before and after the performance.[12]

In 1825, when he was nine, Bosco had the first of a series of dreams which would play an influential role in his work and outlook.[13] This dream “left a profound impression on him for the rest of his life”, according to his own memoirs.[13] Bosco saw a man, who “appeared, nobly attired, with a manly and imposing bearing”.[13] The man said to him:

You will have to win these friends of yours not with blows, but with gentleness and kindness. So begin right now to show them that sin is ugly and virtue beautiful.[13][14]

Poverty prevented any serious attempt at schooling. Nevertheless it’s suggested that the idea to become a priest came from his early childhood, especially following the dream he had when he was nine.[15] At the time, being a priest was generally seen as a profession for the privileged classes, rather than farmers, although it was not unknown.[15] Some biographers portray his brother Antonio as the main obstacle for Bosco’s ambition to study, arguing that “He’s a farmer like us!”[16] Nevertheless, Margaret gave her support to John and he finally left home in February 1828 at the age of twelve.[15] Having to face life by himself at such a young age may have developed his later sympathies to help abandoned boys. After begging unsuccessfully for work, Bosco ended up at the wine farm of Louis Moglia.[15] However, although Bosco could pursue some studies by himself, he was unavailable to attend school for two more years. In 1830 he met Fr. Joseph Calosso, an elderly priest who identified some natural talent and supported his first schooling.[17]

Priesthood and first apostolates

Bosco began as the chaplain of the Rifugio (“Refuge”), a girls’ boarding school founded in Turin by the Marchioness Giulia di Barolo, but he had many ministries on the side such as visiting prisoners, teaching catechism and helping out at country parishes.

A growing group of boys would come to the Rifugio on Sundays and feast days to play and learn their catechism. They were too old to join the younger children in regular catechism classes in the parishes, who mostly chased them away. This was the beginning of the “Oratory of St. Francis de Sales”. Bosco and his oratory wandered around town for a few years and were turned out of several places in succession. After only two months based in the church of St Martin, the entire neighborhood expressed its annoyance with the noise coming from the boys at play. A formal complaint was lodged against them with the municipality. Rumors circulated that the meetings conducted by the priest with his boys were dangerous; their recreation could be turned into a revolution against the government. The group was evicted.[18]

In 1846 Bosco rented a shed in the new Valdocco neighborhood on the north end of town from a Mr. Pinardi. This served as the oratory’s home. His mother moved in with him and in 1847, he and “Mamma Margherita” began taking in orphans.

Even before this, Bosco had the help of several friends at the oratory. There included priests like Joseph Cafasso and Borel, some older boys like Giuseppe Buzzetti, Michael Rua, Giovanni Cagliero and Carlo Gastini as well as Bosco’s own mother.[citation needed]

One friend was Justice Minister Urbano Rattazzi, who despite being anticlerical, nevertheless saw value in Bosco’s work.[19][20] While Rattazzi was pushing a bill through the Sardinian legislature to suppress religious orders, he advised Bosco on how to get around the law and found a religious order to keep the oratory going after its founder’s death.[19] Bosco had been thinking about that problem, too, and had been slowly organizing his helpers into a loose “Congregation of St. Francis de Sales”. He was also training select older boys for the priesthood. Another supporter of the religious order’s idea was the reigning Pope, Blessed Pius IX.[21]

Bosco hated the ideals that had been exported by revolutionary France, calling Rousseau and Voltaire “two vicious leaders of incredulity”,[22] favouring an ultramontane view of politics that acknowledged the supreme authority of the pope. In 1854, when the Kingdom of Sardinia was about to pass a law suppressing monastic orders and confiscating ecclesiastical properties, Bosco reported a series of dreams about “great funerals at court”, referring to politicians or members of the Savoy court.[23] In November 1854, he sent a letter to King Victor Emmanuel II, admonishing him to oppose the confiscation of church property and suppression of the orders, but the King did nothing.[24] His actions, which had been described by Italian historian Erberto Petoia as having “manifest blackmailing intentions”,[25] ended only after the intervention of Prime Minister Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. Despite such criticisms, the King’s family did in fact suffer a number of deaths in a short period. From January to May 1855, the King’s mother (age 54), wife (32), newborn son (Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Genoa; nearly 4 months old), and his only brother (32) all died.[23][24]

Several attempts were made on his life, including a near-stabbing, bludgeoning, and a shooting. Early biographers put this down to the growing influence of the Waldensians in opposition to Catholic clergy.[18]

Opposition to Bosco and his work came from various quarters. Traditionalist clergy accused him of stealing a lot of young and old people away from their own parishes. Nationalist politicians (including some clergy) saw his several hundred young men as recruiting ground for revolution. The Marquis de Cavour, chief of police in Turin, regarded the open-air catechisms as overtly political and a threat to the State, and was highly suspicious of Bosco’s support for the powers of the papacy. Bosco was interrogated on several occasions, but no charges made. Closure may have been prevented by orders from the king that Bosco was not to be disturbed.[26]

Foundation of the Salesian Family

Basilica Don Bosco in Castelnuovo Don Bosco, Asti.

In 1859, Bosco selected the experienced priest Alasonatti, 15 seminarians and one high school boy and formed them into the “Society of St. Francis de Sales.” This was the nucleus of the Salesians, the religious order that would carry on his work. When the group had their next meeting, they voted on the admission of Joseph Rossi as a lay member, the first Salesian brother. The Salesian Congregation was divided into priests, seminarians and “coadjutors” (the lay brothers).

Next, he worked with estarino, Mary Mazzarello and a group of girls in the hill town of Mornese. In 1871, he founded a group of religious sisters to do for girls what the Salesians were doing for boys. They were called the “Daughters of Mary Help of Christians.” In 1874, he founded yet another group, the “Salesian Cooperators.” These were mostly lay people who would work for young people like the Daughters and the Salesians, but would not join a religious order.[27]

The story of the departure of the first Salesians for America in 1875 is based on the missionary ideal of Bosco. After his ordination, he would have become a missionary had not his director, Joseph Cafasso, opposed the idea. He eagerly read the Italian edition of the Annals of the Propagation of the Faith and used this magazine to illustrate his Cattolico provveduto (1853) and his Month of May booklets (1858).

When Bosco founded the Salesian Society, the thought of the missions still obsessed him, though he completely lacked the financial means at that time. One night, he dreamt again. Being on a vast plain, inhabited by primitive peoples, who spent their time hunting or fighting among themselves or against soldiers in European uniforms. Along came a band of missionaries, but they were all massacred. A second group appeared, which Bosco at once recognized as Salesians. Astonished, he witnessed an unexpected change when the fierce savages laid down their arms and listened to the missionaries. The dream made a great impression on Bosco, because he tried hard to identify the men and the country of the dream.

For three years, Bosco searched among documents, trying to get information about different countries, thus identifying the country from his dream. One day, a request came from Argentina, which turned him towards the Indians of Patagonia. To his surprise, a study of the people there convinced him that the country and its inhabitants were the ones he had seen in his dream.

He regarded it as a sign of providence and started preparing a missionary there. Adopting a way of evangelization that would not expose his missionaries suddenly to wild, uncivilized tribes, he proposed to set up bases in safe locations where their missionary efforts were to be launched.

Statue of San Juan Bosco, Ronda, Spain

The above request from Argentina came about as follows: Towards the end of 1874, John Bosco received letters from that country requesting that he accept an Italian parish in Buenos Aires and a school for boys at San Nicolas de los Arroyos. Gazzolo, the Argentine Consul at Savona, had sent the request, for he had taken a great interest in the Salesian work in Liguria and hoped to obtain the Salesians’ help for the benefit of his country. Negotiations started after Archbishop Aneiros of Buenos Aires had indicated that he would be glad to receive the Salesians. They were successful mainly because of the good offices of the priest of San Nicolas, Pedro Ceccarelli, a friend of Gazzolo, who was in touch with and had the confidence of Bosco. In a ceremony held on January 29, 1875, Bosco was able to convey the great news to the oratory in the presence of Gazzolo. On February 5, he announced the fact in a circular letter to all Salesians asking volunteers to apply in writing. He proposed that the first missionary departure start in October. Practically all the Salesians volunteered for the missions.

By this time Italy was united under Piedmontese leadership. The poorly-governed Papal States were merged into the new kingdom. It was generally thought that Bosco supported the Pope.

Don Bosco.

The Preventive System

Bosco’s capability to attract numerous boys and adult helpers was connected to his “Preventive System of Education”. He believed education to be a “matter of the heart” and said that the boys must not only be loved, but know that they are loved. He also pointed to three components of the Preventive System: reason, religion and kindness. Music and games also went into the mix.

Bosco gained a reputation early on of being a saint and miracle worker. For this reason, Rua, Buzzetti, Cagliero and several others chronicled his sayings and doings. Preserved in the Salesian archives, these remain resources for studying his life. Later on, the Salesian Lemoyne collected and combined them into 77 scrapbooks with oral testimonies and Bosco’s own Memoirs of the Oratory. His aim was to write a detailed biography. This project eventually became a nineteen-volume affair, carried out by him and two other authors. These are the Biographical Memoirs. It is not the work of professional historians, but chronicles that preserve the memories of teenage boys.

 Bosco’s concerns over his influence

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Shortly before his death, Bosco commented “I will reveal to you now a fear… I fear that one of ours may come to misinterpret the affection that Don Bosco had for the young, and from the way that I received their confession – really, really close – and may let himself get carried away with too much sensuality towards them, and then pretend to justify himself by saying that Don Bosco did the same, be it when he spoke to them in secret, be it when he received their confession. I know that one can be conquered by way of the heart, and I fear dangers, and spiritual harm.”[28][29][30]

Death and canonization

Bosco died on 31 January 1888. His funeral was attended by thousands. Soon after there was popular demand to have him canonized. The Archdiocese of Turin investigated and witnesses were called to determine if Bosco was worthy of a declared Saint. The Salesians, Daughters and Cooperators gave supportive testimonies. But many remembered Bosco’s controversies in the 1870s with Archbishop Gastaldi and some others high in the Church hierarchy thought him a loose cannon and a wheeler-dealer. In the canonization process, testimony was heard about how he went around Gastaldi to get some of his men ordained and about their lack of academic preparation and ecclesiastical decorum. Political cartoons from the 1860s and later showed him shaking money from the pockets of old ladies or going off to America for the same purpose. These cartoons were not forgotten. Opponents of Bosco, including some cardinals, were in a position to block his canonization and many Salesians feared around 1925 that they would succeed.

Pope Pius XI had known Bosco and pushed the cause forward. Bosco was declared Blessed in 1929 and canonized on Easter Sunday of 1934, when he was given the title of “Father and Teacher of Youth”.[31]

While Bosco had been popularly known as the patron saint of illusionists, on 30 January 2002, Silvio Mantelli petitioned Pope John Paul II to formally declare St. John Bosco the Patron of Stage Magicians.[32] Catholic stage magicians who practice Gospel Magic venerate Bosco by offering free magic shows to underprivileged children on his feast day.

Bosco’s work was carried on by his early pupil and constant companion, Michael Rua, who was appointed Rector Major of the Salesian Society by Pope Leo XIII in 1888. Salesians have started many schools and colleges around the world.

Mk 5:1-20

Gospel

Jesus and his disciples came to the other side of the sea, to the territory of the Gerasenes. When he got out of the boat, at once a man from the tombs who had an unclean spirit met him. The man had been dwelling among the tombs, and no one could restrain him any longer, even with a chain. In fact, he had frequently been bound with shackles and chains, but the chains had been pulled apart by him and the shackles smashed, and no one was strong enough to subdue him. Night and day among the tombs and on the hillsides he was always crying out and bruising himself with stones. Catching sight of Jesus from a distance, he ran up and prostrated himself before him, crying out in a loud voice, “What have you to do with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, do not torment me!” (He had been saying to him, “Unclean spirit, come out of the man!”) He asked him, “What is your name?” He replied, “Legion is my name. There are many of us.” And he pleaded earnestly with him not to drive them away from that territory. Now a large herd of swine was feeding there on the hillside. And they pleaded with him, “Send us into the swine. Let us enter them.” And he let them, and the unclean spirits came out and entered the swine. The herd of about two thousand rushed down a steep bank into the sea, where they were drowned. The swineherds ran away and reported the incident in the town and throughout the countryside. And people came out to see what had happened. As they approached Jesus, they caught sight of the man who had been possessed by Legion, sitting there clothed and in his right mind. And they were seized with fear. Those who witnessed the incident explained to them what had happened to the possessed man and to the swine. Then they began to beg him to leave their district. As he was getting into the boat, the man who had been possessed pleaded to remain with him. But Jesus would not permit him but told him instead, “Go home to your family and announce to them all that the Lord in his pity has done for you.” Then the man went off and began to proclaim in the Decapolis what Jesus had done for him; and all were amazed.

University of Santo Tomas 400years

The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines (colloquially UST or “Ustê”. Filipino: Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas), is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia.[1][2] and is one of the world’s largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus.[3][4] UST is also the largest university in the city of Manila. As a Pontifical University in Asia,[5][6] UST is the only university to have been visited by two popes three times: once by Pope Paul VI on Nov. 28, 1970, and twice by Pope John Paul II on Feb. 18, 1981 and January 13, 1995.[7]

The University is composed of several autonomous faculties, colleges, schools and institutes, each conferring undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate degrees, and the basic education units. Several degrees have been accredited by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence and Centers of Development.

The Patron of the University is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the Patroness.[8]

Prominent Thomasians include saints, Philippine presidents, heroes, artists, scientists, professionals and religious figures, who have figured prominently in the history of the Philippines. The athletic teams are the Growling Tigers, members of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and are consistent winners of the Overall Championship.

Latin: Pontificia et Regalis Sancti Thomæ Aquinatis
Universitas Manilana
Motto Veritas In Caritate
Motto in English Truth in Charity
Established 28 April 1611
Type Pontifical, Royal , Private
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic, Dominican
Chancellor Very Rev. Fr. Bruno Cadoré, OP, S.Th.D
Vice-Chancellor Very Rev. Fr. Quirico T. Pedregosa, OP, S.Th.D.
Rector Very Rev. Fr. Rolando V. dela Rosa, OP, S.Th.D.
Secretary General Rev. Fr. Florentino A. Bolo Jr., OP, JCL
Students 41,653
Undergraduates 31,179
Location Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines
Campus 21.5 hectares, Urban
Former names Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario, Colegio de Santo Tomás de Manila
Hymn The UST Hymn
Colors Gold and white
Nickname Growling Tigers (formerly “Glowing Goldies”)
Mascot Tiger
Affiliations ICUSTA, IAU, ASAIHL UAAP, among others.
Website www.ust.edu.ph
The UST Quadricentennial Logo

History

Main article: History of University of Santo Tomas See also: UST Quadricentennial Celebration The foundation of the University is ascribed to Miguel de Benavides, O.P., the third Archbishop of Manila. He came to the Philippines with the first Dominican mission in 1587. He went on to become bishop of Nueva Segovia, and was promoted archbishop of Manila in 1601. Upon his death in July 1605, Benevides bequeathed his library and personal property worth 1,500 pesos to be used as the seed fund for the establishment of an institution of higher learning. Fr. Bernardo de Santa Catalina carried out Benavides’ wishes and was able to secure a building near the Dominican church and convent in Intramuros for the College. In 1609, permission to open the College was requested from King Philip III of Spain, which only reached Manila in 1611. On April 28, 1611, notary Juan Illian witnessed the signing of the act of foundation by Baltazar Fort, OP, Bernardo Navarro, OP, and Francisco Minayo, OP. Fort, appointed that year to the post of Father Provincial, was its first Rector.[9] The Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario was established on April 28, 1611, from the Benavides’s library. Later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomás, it was elevated by Pope Innocent X to a university on November 20, 1645 in his brief, In Supreminenti.[2] This made the university the second royal and pontifical institution in the Philippines, after the Jesuit’s Universidad de San Ignacio which was founded in 1590 but closed in the 1768 following the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Philippines. Its complete name is The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines (Spanish: A La Real y Pontificia Universidad de Santo Tomas de Aquino Universidad Católica de Filipinas).[10] It was given the title “Royal” by King Charles III of Spain on 1785; “Pontifical” by Pope Leo XIII on 1902 in his constitution, Quae Mari Sinico, and the appellative “The Catholic University of the Philippines” by Pope Pius XII on 1947.[2] The university was located within the walled city of Intramuros in Manila. It was started by the Spanish Archbishop of Manila in the early 17th century as a seminary for aspiring young priests, taking its name and inspiration from Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican theologian. The first courses offered by the Colegio de Santo Tomás were canon law, theology, philosophy, logic, grammar, the arts, and civil law. In 1871, it began offering degrees in Medicine and Pharmacy, the first in colonized Asia.[2] At the beginning of the 20th century, with the growing student population, the Dominicans bought land at the Sulucan Hills in Sampaloc, Manila and built its 215,000 square meter campus there in 1927 with the inauguration of its Main Building. Also that year, it began accepting female enrollees. In the last four decades, the university grew into a full-fledged institution of higher learning, conferring degrees in law, medicine and various academic letters. The university has graduated Philippine national heroes, presidents, and even saints.[2] During World War II, the Japanese converted the campus into a concentration camp for civilians, foreigners and POWs. Some of the most brutal war crimes against American soldiers (Filipino soldiers were granted amnesty) and civilians living abroad occurred in the campus.[11] Since its establishment in 1611, the University’s academic life was interrupted only twice: from 1898 to 1899, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, and from 1942 to 1945, during the Japanese occupation of the country. In its long history, the university has been under the leadership of more than 90 Rectors. UST’s first Filipino rector was Fr. Leonardo Legaspi, O.P. who served UST from 1971-1977. Its current rector is Fr. Rolando V. de la Rosa, O.P.[2] In recognition of its achievements, a number of important dignitaries have officially visited the university, among them, during the last three decades: His Holiness Pope Paul VI on 28 November 1970; His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain in 1974 and 1995; Mother Teresa of Calcutta in January 1977 and again in November 1984; Pope John Paul II on 18 February 1981 and 13 January 1995 (as part of the World Youth Day 1995).[2] On the 2007-08 academic year, UST had 37,776 students enrolled.[12] [edit] The University seal The seal of the University of Santo Tomas is a shield quartered by the Dominican Cross. Superimposed on the cross is the sun of Saint Thomas Aquinas, patron of Catholic schools, after whom the university is named. The sun is actually made similar to the Sun of May. Some of the elements present in the University Seal: Left to right: Emblem of the papacy, crowned by the Papal Tiara, seal of the Spanish Kingdom of Leon showing the lion rampant, and the seal of Manila showing the sea lion. Encircling the Dominican cross are: On the upper left is the papal tiara, indicating that the UST is a pontifical university. The upper right shows the lion derived from the seal of Spain, indicative of royal patronage throughout the greater part of the university’s centuries-old existence. The lower left is occupied by the sea lion taken from the seal of the City of Manila, the national capital, symbolizing the Republic of the Philippines. The rose on the lower right is a symbol of the Blessed Virgin Mary under whose patronage the university was placed from its very beginnings. The symbols are rendered in gold (except for the Dominican cross which is black and white), and are set on a field of light blue, the Marian color.[13] The Tongues of Fire is the official logo for the Quadricentennial celebration of the university. This logo features the outline of the UST Main Building Tower as a concrete symbol of the stability, integrity and 400 years of existence of the university. From the cross of the Main Building emanate four tongues of fire that spell out U, S, and T. The tongues of fire reference the future of the university, some ideals, and are reminiscent of the stripes of the Tiger, the school’s mascot. The Quadricentennial logo was designed by Dopy Doplon, a Thomasian.[14] [edit] Campus University of Santo Tomas in España, ManilaThe University sits on an almost perfect square of 21.5 hectares bounded by España Boulevard, P.Noval, A.H. Lacson and Dapitan St, in Sampaloc, Manila. The University transferred to its present campus in 1927 when the Dominicans deemed the Intramuros Campus Inadequate for the University’s growing population. The First Structures in the campus were the imposing Main Building, the Santisimo Rosario Parish, the UST Gym (once the largest gym in the country), and the Arch of the Centuries. The Campus, at present boasts a mixture of old and new architecture with the inclusion of the UST Multi-Deck carpark which houses the Alfredo M. Velayo College of Accountancy, and the proposed UST Sports Complex, the 2nd Modern Sports facility to be constructed by a UAAP member school. Other new structures include the Beato Angelico Building which houses the College of Architecture and College of Fine Arts and Design, the Plaza Mayor, the UST Quadricentennial Square and Alumni Park, Thomas Aquinas Research Complex and the UST – Tan Yan Kee Student Center. UST Quadricentennial SquareThe University has started to develop upcoming campuses in Santa Rosa City (60 hectares), General Santos City (80 hectares), and Negombo, Sri Lanka, (5 hectares).[15] The University is also in the process of establishing a presence in Mongolia.[16] In 2011, the University will be celebrating its 400th founding anniversary, and it is projected that the new campuses will be operational by then.[17] Fountain of Wisdom The Plaza Mayor in the foreground, the Beato Angelico Bldg, Football Field and Grandstand in the background.Prominent landmarks:[18] Arch of the Centuries Fountain of Wisdom Fountain of Knowledge Main Building Miguel de Benavides Monument UST Miguel de Benavides Library (formerly, UST Central Library) College Buildings: Albertus Magnus Building Alfredo M. Velayo Building Beato Angelico Building Benavides Building Main Building Roque Ruaño Building Saint Martin de Porres Building Saint Raymund de Peñafort Building Parks and Gardens: Plaza Intramuros, which houses the Arch of the Centuries, the Fountains of Wisdom and Knowledge, the university marker, and the two flag poles each for the Philippine flag and UST banner. Plaza Benavides, which houses the Statue of Miguel de Benavides, Burgos Lane, Rizal Lane, Del Pilar Lane, and its surrounding open spaces. Plaza Calderon, which is located in front of the original UST gymnasium that houses the covered court and its adjacent open space. Plaza Mayor, a concreted plaza in front of the Main Building. The Alumni Walkway, a pedestrian walkway near the Quezon Drive. Tinoco Park, which used to be known as Peñafort Mall. The old Tinoco park is located in the site of the Central Library. Quadricentennial Square, which houses the Quadricentennial Fountain and the Quattromondial. Botanical Garden and Rosarium Medical Buildings: UST Health Service UST Hospital USTH Clinical Division USTH-Miguel de Benavides Cancer Institute USTH Angelo King Auditorium UST Medical Arts Building UST Medicine Cinematorium Museums: Dr. Julieta Hayag-Manchanda UST Anatomy Gallery UST Beato Angelico Art Gallery UST Medicine Museum UST Museum of Arts and Sciences Other Landmarks: UST-Multi-deck Carpark and Food Center UST Buildings and Grounds Office UST Central Seminary UST Grandstand and Parade Grounds UST Gymnasium UST Publishing House Santissimo Rosario Parish UST Sports Complex (under construction) UST-Tan Yan Kee Student Center Thomas Aquinas Research Complex (TARC) Streets:[19] The streets of the University were non-existent until March 1960. The prominent university streets are Intramuros Drive, Quezon Drive, and Osmeña Drive. [edit] Academics Aside from the basic and major subjects, all undergraduate students are required to take 15 units (tuition-free) of Theology classes. The students are also required to attend 4 physical education classes, and a choice from among ROTC, civil welfare training service, and literacy training service. [edit] Basic education The UST Elementary School used to offer primary education for children in the K-12 levels,[20] but before the Quadricentennial Celebration of the University, the school started denying applications from the K-Level, until the last batch of Grade 6 students who would graduate on AY 2010-2011 are left. The UST Elementary School, after finishing the last batch of its students in the UST Sampaloc Campus, will be transferred to the new UST Campus in Santa Rosa City, Laguna. UST has two secondary institutions: The UST High School and the UST Education High School which serves as a laboratory for the College of Education.[21][22] All students of these institutions undergo Citizenship Advancement Training, while the students from first to third year level of the UST High School undergo scouting under the Boy Scouts of the Philippines for the boys and the Girl Scouts of the Philippines for the girls. The scouting program aims to instill nationalism and discipline among the students while the Citizenship Advancement Training aims to introduce students to the National Service Training Program that college students undergo. [edit] Undergraduate studies The different faculties, colleges and institutes of the University were created at different times in the University’s history. The “Faculties” were founded before the American occupation of the early 20th century, while the “Colleges” were founded during and after American rule. The “Institutes” and “Departments” are found within their mother faculties/colleges. Some Institutes that attained enough enrollment were separated from their mother faculties/colleges and were made into colleges in their own right. [edit] Faculties The degree programs for undergraduate studies were first offered in 1611, where the Faculties of Sacred Theology and Philosophy were founded.[23][24] The Faculty of Canon Law was founded in 1733.[25] These three original faculties are now known as the Ecclesiastical Faculties, to distinguish them from the Secular Faculties and Colleges that were founded later. The Eccesiastical Faculties are housed at the Seminary and at the Santisimo Rosario Parish. The Faculty of Medicine & Surgery together with the Faculty of Pharmacy were founded on the same year in 1871. The Faculty of Pharmacy offers Bachelor of Science degrees in Biochemistry, Medical Technology, and Pharmacy. The Faculty of Medicine & Surgery is located at the St. Martin de Porres building, while the Faculty of Pharmacy is located at the Main Building.[26] The Faculty of Philosophy and Letters was founded in 1896. It was merged with some programs of the College of Liberal Arts in 1965 hence renaming the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters as the Faculty of Arts and Letters (the College of Liberal Arts was renamed the College of Science). The Faculty of Arts and Letters offers the Bachelor of Arts (AB) degrees, in Asian Studies, Behavioral Science, Communication Arts, Economics, Journalism, Legal Management, Literature, Philosophy, Political Science, and Sociology. The Faculty of Arts and Letters is located in the St. Raymond de Peñafort building. Its students are known as “Artlets” (previously “Philets”). The departments of Literature and Philosophy are Centers of Excellence.[27] In 1907, the Faculty of Engineering was founded. Currently it offers the Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. Computer Science, Information Management, and Information Technology degrees were transferred to it from the College of Science. In 2007, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems was offered replacing the Information Management program. The department of Electronics and Communications Engineering is named as one of the Centers of Excellence by the Commission on Higher Education. The Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering programs, on the other hand, are the Centers of Development. Engineering is located at the Roque Ruaño building, named after the priest-engineer Roque Ruaño, O.P. For practical purposes, the building is called the “Engineering building.”[28] [edit] Colleges The College of Education, which was founded in 1926, offers the Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education major in Pre-School or Special Education, Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education with majors in Computer Technology,Biology-Chemistry, Biology-General Science, Social Studies, English, Mathematics, Physical Education, Health and Music, Religious Education, or Social Guidance, the Bachelor of Library and Information Science, the Bachelor of Science in Food Technology, and Nutrition and Dietetics. Education is one of Centers of Excellence in the University. The college is located at the Albertus Magnus building.[29] The College of Science, which was founded in 1926, offers the Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Physics major in Instrumentation, Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics major in Actuarial Science, Microbiology (the only such program in the Philippines), and Psychology. Both Biology and Chemistry are accredited by CHED as Centers of Excellence. The College also offered a degree in Zoology, but was later abolished. The College of Science is located at the third floor of the UST Main Building.[30] The College of Architecture, which was founded in 1930, offers the Bachelor of Science in Architecture. Later on, after adding a fine arts program the college was called College of Architecture and Fine Arts. By the year 2000, the Fine Arts program was elevated to a separate college. The College of Architecture is housed at the Beato Angelico building. It is one of two Centers of Excellence in Architecture. In 1933, the College of Commerce and Business Administration was created. College of Commerce offers the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with majors in Marketing Management, Financial Management, Human Resource Management, and Business Economics (not to be confused with the AB Economics being offered by Arts and Letters) as well as Bachelor of Science in Commerce major in Entrepreneurship. On 2004, the accountancy program was transferred to the new Alfredo M. Velayo College of Accountancy (see below). It is housed in the St. Raymund de Penafort building together with the Faculty of Arts and Letters. The Business Administration program is a Center of Development.[31] The Conservatory of Music, founded in 1945, offers the Bachelor of Music degree, with majors in Keyboard (Piano, Harpsichord, Organ), Music Education, Voice, Strings and Guitar, Woodwind, Brasswind, Percussion, Composition Theory, and Conducting. Its facilities are located at the Albertus Magnus building. The Conservatory is one of the two Centers of Excellence in Music in the Philippines.[32] The College of Nursing was founded in 1946. It currently offers Bachelor of Science in Nursing program, which is a Center of Excellence and current Dean is Jhana C. Canonigo, RN, MAN, Ph.D. The college is housed in the St. Martin de Porres building.[33] The College of Rehabilitation Sciences, founded in 1974, offers the Bachelor of Science degrees in Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, Speech–Language Pathology, and the Bachelor in Sports Science degree. Like Nursing, CRS is at the St. Martin de Porres building.[34] The College of Fine Arts and Design was separated from the College of Architecture in 2000. It offers the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree with majors in Advertising, Industrial Design, Interior Design, and Painting. It shares the Beato Angelico Building with the College of Architecture.[35] The Alfredo M. Velayo College of Accountancy was separated from the College of Commerce on November 2004. Named after one of its renowned alumnus, Alfredo M. Velayo, one of the three founding members of the auditing firm known as SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co., the college houses students who are enrolled in the Accountancy and Management Accounting programs. With the aid of its alumni foundation, the college is now housed in its own building that was inaugurated on June 2006. The College of Tourism and Hospitality Management was separated from the College of Education on April 26, 2006. From an institute, the University has raised its level to a college in December 2008. It offers both the degrees; Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management and the Bachelor of Science in Travel Management[36] [edit] Institutes and departments The Institute of Physical Education and Athletics (IPEA) is an independent college intended for the elevation of sports and athleticism in the university. Situated at the UST Gym. The Department of Military Science & Tactics (DMST) was later on integrated to the NSTP (National Service Training Corps) program of the University. It provides adequate learning in the military arts in preparation for Thomasians in entering into military Service. The ROTC Department is under the DMST. The Institute of Religion (IR), since its foundation in 1933, has been the theology-teaching department of the University for the civil sciences. As one of the offices under the Vice Rector for Religious Affairs, the IR has been a prime mover in campus evangelization primarily through classroom instruction. Located at the heart of the UST Main Building, the site of IR’s office symbolizes the directive of the Church that theology should be the core of the curriculum in Catholic institutions. Centers of Excellence (as of Oct.4 ,2010)[37] Literature Biology Chemistry Medicine Music Nursing Teacher Education Philosophy Theology Architecture Centers of Development (as of Oct.4 ,2010)[37] Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Electronics and Communications Engineering Industrial Engineering Mechanical Engineering Physical Therapy [edit] Postgraduate studies As early as the 17th century post-graduate programs have been offered in the University of Santo Tomas through its various Faculties and Colleges. [edit] Faculty of Civil Law The UST Faculty of Civil Law was the first secular faculty, and hence the oldest law school in the Philippines. Although the Faculty offers the Bachelor of Laws degree, it is considered as a post baccalaureate degree, as it requires applicants to either have a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. Civil Law resides in the UST Main Building.[38] The Faculty of Civil Law has produced four Philippine Presidents and six Chief Justices of the Philippines. It also has a Legal Aid clinic named after one of its illustrious alumni, Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion. Aspiring law students need to finish at least a bachelor’s degree before being admitted to the Faculty. They must then maintain an average of at least 78 in their freshman year to be readmitted the succeeding year. The required minimum grade increases as the year level progresses (79 for the second year, 80 for the third year and 81 for fourth year). During the third year of stay in the Faculty and after finishing all the law subjects, the student is required to engage in an internship program of at least 200 hours before being admitted to the fourth year, wherein he will then be required to undergo an oral examination or revalida and at least two major examinations to be able to complete the whole program. Upon graduation, the student will be qualified to become a bar candidate that will be eligible to take the bar examinations in the Philippines.[38] The Faculty is one of the top performing schools in the history of the Philippine bar examinations.[39] It has produced four Philippine Presidents, three Philippine Vice Presidents, six Supreme Court Chief Justices, and several law deans in the country.[40] [edit] Faculty of Medicine and Surgery The UST Faculty of Medicine and Surgery was founded in 1871. Medicine and Surgery offers the Doctor of Medicine degree which is a post baccalaureate degree. The national hero of the Philippines, José Rizal, studied here before moving to Madrid Central University to complete his studies. Graduates of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery rank among the top scorers in the medical licensure exams, and the Faculty boasts a high passing rate overall. In 2001, the Faculty adopted the problem-based learning method for use in the curriculum. This was highly controversial, as many professors complained that students were not learning the basic sciences adequately.[41] Eventually, in 2003 the curriculum was changed again, this time to an innovate format which combined elements of both traditional (lecture-based) and problem-based methods. The Faculty is known for giving its fourth-year students a series of written and oral exams known as the “revalida”. In the oral exams, groups of three students each are questioned by panels composed of three professors on basic, clinical, and emergency medical sciences. Passing the revalida is a prerequisite to graduation. The Faculty is a Center of Excellence.[42] It has been consistently producing topnotchers in the annual national licensure exams for Filipino physicians and it is proud of its Level 4 National Accreditation for several years.[43] It is also the alma mater of numerous Secretaries of Health of the Philippines,[44] as well as several Presidents of the Philippine Medical Association, the national organization of medical doctors in the country.[45] The Faculty was also ranked as the only Asian medical school to be in the top 10 list of foreign medical institutions by the U.S. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates in 2007. [edit] Graduate School As early as the 17th century postgraduate degrees were offered and granted by the various faculties in the University. In 1938, the UST Graduate School was established to administer and coordinate all the graduate programs in the University. The Graduate School academic programs have grown to 90 course offerings, spanning about seven clusters of disciplines. Today the UST Graduate School is recognized as a Center of Excellence in several fields of the Arts and Humanities, Allied Health Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Engineering by the Commission on Higher Education.[46] Its programs in business, public management, and education were also recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Fund for Assistance of Private Education (FAPE)- Evaluation of Graduate Education Programs (EGEP). [edit] Student life and culture Main article: University of Santo Tomas student life and culture [edit] Events and traditions The UST Main Building illuminating the nights of December 2007 “VERITAS”: the university supporting the “Search for Truth”Misa de Apertura (The Opening Mass for the Academic Year) The Thomasian Welcome Walk – (formerly The Rites of Passage) Freshmen pass under the historic Arch of the Centuries as welcome to the university life. The Highlight of the TWW, aside from the symbolic passing, is the Eucharistic Celebration. Established in 2003.[47] The USTv Students’ Choice Awards on Television – Established in 2005, is an award-giving body by Thomasians for Philippine Television that upholds Christian moral and ideals. UST Paskuhan – Primered by the Eucharistic Celebration, the Paskuhan is the Thomasian way of celebrating Christmas. It is one of the most awaited events of the year showcasing different performances from different student organizations, and live bands, which is complemented with an extravagant show of pyrotechny. It was December 19, 1991 when the first Paskuhan came about. Dubbed “Paskong Tomasino, Paskong Filipino ’91,” the event intended to reflect the Filipino tradition of “panunuluyan” through a procession from different colleges and faculties in the campus. It also featured a Holy Mass and an inter-collegiate lantern-making contest. The main highlight, however, was gift giving. A 14-foot Christmas tree was erected at the UST Grandstand where Thomasians placed their donations for the victims of Typhoon Uring.[48] UST Baccalaureate Mass, Ceremony of the Light, and The Sending off Rites UST annual Goodwill Tournaments for various sports for all colleges. (Football, Basketball, Swimming, Volleyball, etc.) [edit] Student organizations Main article: List of University of Santo Tomas student organizations [edit] Athletics Main article: UST Growling Tigers Gold and White are UST’s school colors.UST is a founding member of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP) and of the National Collegiate Athletic Association.[49] The varsity team, originally the “Glowing Goldies” but has since been renamed the Growling Tigers beginning the 1992-93 season, have won the men’s basketball title 18 times since 1938. The University also has representatives for all the UAAP events. The women’s teams are called the Tigresses, while the Juniors (high school) teams are the Tiger Cubs. The University has won the UAAP Seniors Overall Championship a record 35 times, and are currently holding the title for the last ten years. The official dance troupe, the Salinggawi Dance Troupe with the official pep squad, UST Yellow Jackets, has won the UAAP Cheerdance Competition for five consecutive seasons already.[50] In the UAAP 69th (2006–2007) season, the men’s team captured the seniors basketball crown defeating the Ateneo Blue Eagles in two of the three games held.[51] In women’s basketball, the Lady Tigresses defeated the FEU Lady Tamaraws for the title.[52] With the championship, the UST Growling Tigers ties the UE Red Warriors with 18 UAAP senior men’s basketball titles, behind the league-leading FEU Tamaraws with 19. UST also won a senior NCAA championship, to bring the total to 19 men’s championships. [edit] Research The main venue of research in UST is the Thomas Aquinas Research Complex. The massive edifice named after the patron saint of the University is a semi-centralized system for the productive exchange of ideas among researchers in the fields of arts, humanities, science, technology, social sciences, and education. The following research centers can be found in the TARC:[53] Center for Applied Ethics – established on July 1, 2002 under the administration of Rev. Fr. Tamerlane R. Lana, O.P., The Center was the flagship project of the University towards achieving its vision of becoming the “Center for Contextualized Theology in Asia by 2011.” Center for Conservation of Cultural Property and Environment in the Tropics – envisions to be a leading center and prime mover in the promotion of Cultural Heritage in the Philippines by providing and developing professional and academic expertise in conservation and heritage management of cultural properties in the tropics. Center for Educational Research and Development – was established in June 1979, by Rev. Fr. Paul P. Zwanepoel. Through the years, the Center has evolved from being an academic arm of the various colleges in the university providing educational, research and consultancy services to a research-intensified unit thus, redefining the concept of the university faculty as producers of knowledge and information. Center for Intercultural Studies – was opened as the Chiang Ching-kuo Centre for Intercultural Studies in 1993 in the Main Building during the term of Rev. Fr. Rolando de la Rosa, O.P. as Rector of the University with Dr. Alfredo Co as the first Director of the Centre. Center for Research on Movement Science – naugurated on February 21, 2003,The Center for Research on Movement Science envisions itself to become an acknowledged expert in the country, in the field of research on exercise and human movement through the Human Performance Laboratory and the Biomechanics Laboratory. Research Center for the Natural Sciences – the venue for science and technology research in the University of Santo Tomas. Established in 1962, it was originally conceived as the University Research Center, encompassing both the cultural and the experimental sciences. However, in the succeeding years, it gradually assumed an orientation towards the natural sciences. Social Research Center – Established on December 1, 1979, Social Research Center (SRC) is the university’s research arm for the social sciences. UST Psychotrauma Clinic [edit] Other research centers Archivo de la Universidad de Santo Tomas (UST Archives) Benavides Review and Training Center Center for Audiological Sciences Center for Creative Writing and Studies – aims to conserve, enrich and reaffirm the fertile foundation of Thomasian letters by nurturing the proper creative ecology that is meant to contribute to faculty development and excellence in literary and humanistic studies. Center for Drug Research, Evaluation and Studies Center for Professional Development and Consultancy Educational Technology Center Health Sciences Research Management Group John Paul II Center for Ecclesiastical Studies – the JPIIRCES defines research as “a creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge of humanity, culture and society—and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.” For the Ecclesiastical Sciences, “to increase the stock of knowledge” particularly means “to understand better, further develop and more effectively communicate the meaning of Christian Revelation as transmitted in Scripture and Tradition and in the Church’s Magisterium” as well as to “shed light on specific questions raised by contemporary culture Miguel de Benavides Cancer Institute – envisioned to offer a multi-disciplinary professional medical service for patients needing cancer care. This will be from prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up aspects of cancer patients.[54] Research Center for the Health Sciences – The Research Center for the Health Sciences (RCHS) is the University’s flagship unit for the health sciences. It is the research arm of the Faculty of Medicine & Surgery (FMS). Its ultimate aim is to build research competency in the FMS to enhance its research competitiveness in addressing immediate national and global health problems and making a difference in promoting health and health equity. [edit] University Research Office UST Office of Research and Development [edit] College-affiliated research offices/units Marcelo G. Casillan Sr. Quadricentennial Research Office (at the Faculty of Arts and Letters) Dr. Hubert Wong, Learning Resource Unit (at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery) Nursing Learning Resource Unit (at the College of Nursing) Graduate School Learning Resource Unit (at the Graduate School) Office of Graduate Research (at the Graduate School) Beato Angelico Gallery (at the Beato Angelico Building) [edit] Publications [edit] UST Publishing House and UST Press The UST Publishing House (USTPH) was established in 1996. While it takes its inspiration from the four-century-old UST Press (founded in 1593), it is an entirely different entity. The USTPH, with the former UST Printing Office as its printing arm, is responsible for the publication of scholarly books, outstanding faculty researches and monographs, quality textbooks in all levels, artworks and designs, as well as other educational printed materials. Equipped with state-of-the-art printing machines from Germany and top-of-the-line computers from the United States, Japan, and other countries, the USTPH is envisioned to purvey extensively the creative and innovative outputs of the academe, not only within, but also outside the University’s 21.5-hectare campus.[55] [edit] Academic and research journals Acta Manilana, a journal for the natural and applied sciences Ad Veritatem, a multi-disciplinary research journal of the UST Graduate School Boletin Ecclesiastico, the Official Interdiocesian Journal of UST The Compendium – the official student research publication of the Faculty of Engineering Journal for the Arts, Culture and Humanities, a journal of the Center for Intercultural Studies Karunungan: A Journal of Philosophy Philippiniana Sacra, a publication of the Ecclesiastical Faculties Res Socialis, a journal of the Social Research Center Santo Tomas Journal of Medicine, a publication of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery (ISSN: 0115-1126) Tomas, literary journal of the Center for Creative Writing and Studies Unitas, a scholarly publication for the arts and the sciences UST Law Review, a journal of the Faculty of Civil Law Philippine Journal of Allied Health Sciences, a research journal of the UST Center for Research on Movement Science (ISSN 1908-5044) The Currency, the Official Compilation of the College of Commerce and Business Administration UST College of Science Journal Book of Abstracts, journal for natural and applied sciences and proceedings of the UST College of Science (ISSN: 2012-354X) [edit] Newsletters Academia, the official international bulletin of the University of Santo Tomas Thomasian Sunscope, the official alumni newsletter of the University of Santo Tomas [edit] Student publications [edit] University-wide publications The Varsitarian, the University-wide official student publication. (Lampooned by The Vuisitarian) Montage, the official literary folio of Varsitarian Breaktime, the official magazine of the Varsitarian (comes out every summer) [edit] Alumni Main article: List of University of Santo Tomas people Two of the university’s foremost alumni, Philippine national hero José Rizal and president Manuel L. Quezon, are honored by being displayed on each of the pillars on the Arch of the Centuries.Persons affiliated to the university, either as students, faculty members, or administrators, are known as “Thomasians”. José Rizal (National Hero of the Philippines), studied Medicine at UST, and continued it at the University of Madrid in Madrid, Spain. The University has produced four Presidents of the Philippines, namely Manuel L. Quezon,[56] Sergio Osmeña,[57] José P. Laurel and Diosdado Macapagal. It has also produced three Philippine Vice Presidents and six Chief Justices of the Philippine Supreme Court. Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon and Philippine national hero José Rizal are honored by the University as they are displayed on the pillars of the Arch of the Centuries. The UST Office for Alumni Relations build a four-story alumni center on the site of existing UST gymnasium; it is a multi-function building to hold events for the alumni and lodging services for visitors. The existing Olympic-sized swimming pool located nearby would be kept and refurbished. [58] The design was chosen from seven winners in a competition among students organized by the College of Architecture. Abelardo Tolentino Jr., an outstanding Thomasian alumni for Architecture, worked on the design to produce the final blueprint.[58] The groundbreaking ceremony was held on February 4, 2010, after the unveiling of the University marker. The ceremony was attended by members of the UST Medical Alumni Association Foundation.[59]

 

Memorial of Saint Thomas Aquinas, priest and doctor of the Church

Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P., also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino; (Aquino, 1225 – Fossanova, 7 March 1274) was an Italian priest of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Order, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) and Doctor Communis or Doctor Universalis (the Common or Universal Doctor).[1] “Aquinas” is not a surname (hereditary surnames were not then in common use in Europe), but is a Latin adjective meaning “of Aquino”, his place of birth. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of the Thomistic school of philosophy and theology, which is named after him. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived as a reaction against, or as an agreement with his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory.

Thomas is held in the Catholic Church to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood.[2] The works for which he is best-known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa Contra Gentiles. One of the 33 Doctors of the Church, he is considered the Church’s greatest theologian and philosopher. Pope Benedict XV declared: “The Church has declared Thomas’ doctrines to be her own.”[3]

     Biography

     Early years and desire to become a Dominican (1225-1240)

    Thomas was born in Aquino c. 1225, according to some authors in the father Count Landulf of Aquino’s castle placed in Roccasecca, in the same Contea di Aquino (Kingdom of Sicily, in the present-day: Lazio). Through his mother, Theodora Countess of Theate, Thomas was related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors.[4] Landulf’s brother Sinibald was abbot of the original Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family’s sons pursued a military career,[5] the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy;[6] this would have been a normal career path for a younger son of southern Italian nobility.[4]

    At the age of five, Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict that broke out between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale (university) recently established by Frederick in Naples.[7] It was here that Thomas was probably introduced to Aristotle, Averroes and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy.[8] It was also during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, who was part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.[9] Here his teacher in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music was Petrus de Ibernia.[10]

    At age nineteen, Thomas resolved to join the Dominican Order. Thomas’s change of heart did not please his family, who had expected him to become a Benedictine monk.[11] In an attempt to prevent Theodora’s interference in Thomas’s choice, the Dominicans arranged for Thomas to be removed to Rome, and from Rome, sent to Paris.[12] On his way to Rome, his brothers, per Theodora’s instructions, seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano.[12] He was held for two years in the family homes at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration.[8] Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas’s release, extending the detention,[13] a detention which Thomas spent tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order.[8] Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas, who remained determined to join the Dominicans. At one point, two of his brothers hired a prostitute to seduce him, but he drove her away, wielding a burning stick. According to legend, that night two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate.[14] By 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family’s dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Thomas was sent first to Naples and then to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order.[15]

    Paris, Cologne, Albert Magnus, and First Paris Regency (1245-1259)

    In 1245, Thomas was sent to study at the University of Paris‘ Faculty of Arts where he most likely met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus,[16] then the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris.[17] When Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248,[16] Thomas followed him, declining Pope Innocent IV‘s offer to appoint him abbot of Monte Cassino as a Dominican.[6] Albertus then appointed the reluctant Thomas magister studentium.[4] After failing in his first theological disputation, Albertus prophetically exclaimed: “We call him the dumb ox, but in his teaching he will one day produce such a bellowing that it will be heard throughout the world.”[6]

    Thomas taught in Cologne as an apprentice professor (baccalaureus biblicus), instructing students on the books of the Old Testament and writing Expositio super Isaiam ad litteram (Literal Commentary on Isaiah), Postilla super Ieremiam (Commentary on Jeremiah) and Postilla super Threnos (Commentary on Lamentations).[18] Then in 1252 he returned to Paris to study for the master’s degree in theology. He lectured on the Bible as an apprentice professor, and upon becoming a baccalaureus Sententiarum (bachelor of the Sentences)[19] devoted his final three years of study to commenting on Peter Lombard‘s Sentences. In the first of his four theological syntheses, Thomas composed a massive commentary on the Sentences entitled Scriptum super libros Sententiarium (Commentary on the Sentences). Aside from his masters writings, he wrote De ente et essentia (On Being and Essence) for his fellow Dominicans in Paris.[6]

    In spring of 1256, Thomas was appointed regent master in theology at Paris and one of his first works upon assuming this office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem (Against Those Who Assail the Worship of God and Religion), defending the mendicant orders which had come under attack by William of Saint-Amour.[20] During his tenure from 1256 to 1259, Thomas wrote numerous works, including: Questiones disputatae de veritate (Disputed Questions on Truth), a collection of twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition [21] prepared for the public university debates he presided over on Lent and Advent;[22] Quaestiones quodlibetales (Quodlibetal Questions), a collection of his responses to questions posed to him by the academic audience;[21] and both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate (Commentary on Boethius’s De trinitate) and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus (Commentary on Boethius’s De hebdomadibus), commentaries on the works of 6th century philosopher Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius.[23] By the end of his regency, Thomas was working on one of his most famous works, Summa contra Gentiles.[24]

    Saint Thomas Aquinas

    St. Thomas Aquinas, by Fra Angelico, O.P.
    Doctor of the Church
    Born c. 1229
    Aquino, Kingdom of Sicily
    Died 7 March 1274(1274-03-07) (aged 49)
    Fossanuova Abbey, Kingdom of Sicily
    Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
    Anglican Communion
    Canonized 1323, Avignon, France by Pope John XXII
    Major shrine Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse, France
    Feast 28 January (new), 7 March (old)
    Attributes The Summa Theologica, a model church, the Sun
    Patronage All Catholic educational institutions

     Naples, Orvieto, Rome, and Santa Sabina (1259-1269)

    Around 1259, Thomas returned to Naples where he lived until he arrived in Orvieto around September 1261. In Orvieto, he was appointed conventual lector, in charge of the education of friars unable to attend a studium generale. During his stay in Orvieto, Thomas completed his Summa contra Gentiles, and wrote the Catena Aurea (The Golden Chain).[25] He also wrote the liturgy for the newly created feast of Corpus Christi and produced works for Pope Urban IV concerning Greek Orthodox theology, e.g. Contra errores graecorum (Against the Errors of the Greeks).[24] In 1265 he was ordered by the Dominicans to establish a studium for the Order in Rome at the priory of Santa Sabina, which he did from 1265 until he was called back to Paris in 1268.[26] It was in Rome that Thomas began his most famous work, Summa Theologica,[25] and wrote a variety of other works like his unfinished Compendium Theologiae and Responsio ad fr. Ioannem Vercellensem de articulis 108 sumptis ex opere Petri de Tarentasia (Reply to Brother John of Vercelli Regarding 108 Articles Drawn from the Work of Peter of Tarentaise).[23] In his position as head of the studium, conducted a series of important disputations on the power of God, which he compiled into his De potentia.[26]

    The Quarrelsome Second Paris Regency (1269-1272)

    In 1268 the Dominican Order assigned Thomas to be regent master at the University of Paris for a second time, a position he held until the spring of 1272. Part of the reason for this sudden reassignment appears to have arisen from the rise of “Averroism” or “radical Aristotelianism” in the universities. In response to these perceived evils, Thomas wrote two works, one of them being De unitate intellectus, contra Averroistas (On the Unity of Intellect, against the Averroists) in which he blasts Averroism as incompatible with Christian doctrine.[27] During his second regency, he finished the second part of the Summa and wrote De virtutibus and De aeternitate mundi,[26] the latter of which dealt with controversial Averroist and Aristotelian beginninglessness of the world.[28] Disputes with some important Franciscans such as Bonaventure and John Peckham conspired to make his second regency much more difficult and troubled than the first. A year before Thomas re-assumed the regency at the 1266-67 Paris disputations, Franciscan master William of Baglione accused Thomas of encouraging Averroists, calling him the “blind leader of the blind”. Thomas called these individuals the murmurantes (Grumblers).[28] In reality, Thomas was deeply disturbed by the spread of Averroism and was angered when he discovered Siger of Brabant teaching Averroistic interpretations of Aristotle to Parisian students.[29] On 10 December 1270, the bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier, issued an edict condemning thirteen Aristotlelian and Averroistic propositions as heretical and excommunicating anyone who continued to support them.[30] Many in the ecclesiastical community, the so-called Augustinians, were fearful that this introduction of Aristotelianism and the more extreme Averroism might somehow contaminate the purity of the Christian faith. In what appears to be an attempt to counteract the growing fear of Aristotelian thought, Thomas conducted a series of disputations between 1270 and 1272: De virtutibus in communi (On Virtues in General), De virtutibus cardinalibus (On Cardinal Virtues), De spe (On Hope).[31]

    Final days and “Straw” (1272-1274)

    In 1272 Thomas took leave from the University of Paris when the Dominicans from his home province called upon him to establish a studium generale wherever he liked and staff it as he pleased. He chose to establish the institution in Naples, and moved there to take his post as regent master.[26] He took his time at Naples to work on the third part of the Summa while giving lectures on various religious topics. On 6 December 1273 Thomas was celebrating the Mass of St. Nicholas when, according to some, he heard Christ speak to him. Christ asked him what he desired, being pleased with his meritorious life. Thomas replied “Only you Lord. Only you.”[32] After this exchange something happened, but Thomas never spoke of it or wrote it down. Because of what he saw, he abandoned his routine and refused to dictate to his socius Reginald of Piperno. When Reginald begged him to get back to work, Thomas replied: “Reginald, I cannot, because all that I have written seems like straw to me.”[33] (mihi videtur ut palea).[34] What exactly triggered Thomas’s change in behavior is believed to be some kind of supernatural experience of God.[35] After taking to his bed, he did recover some strength.[36]

    Looking to find a way to reunite the Eastern Orthodox churches with the Catholic Church (the Eastern Orthodox had parted ways with the Catholic Church in A.D. 1054 over doctrinal disputes) Pope Gregory X convened the Second Council of Lyon to be held on 1 May 1274 and summoned Thomas to attend.[37] At the meeting, Thomas’s work for Pope Urban IV concerning the Greeks, Contra errores graecorum, was to be presented.[38] On his way to the Council, riding on a donkey along the Appian Way,[37] he struck his head on the branch of a fallen tree and became seriously ill again. He was then quickly escorted to Monte Cassino to convalesce.[39] After resting for a while, he set out again, but stopped at the Cistercian Fossanova Abbey after again falling ill.[40] The monks nursed him for several days, and as he received his last rites he prayed: “I receive Thee, ransom of my soul. For love of Thee have I studied and kept vigil, toiled, preached and taught…”[41] He died on 7 March 1274[40] while giving commentary on the Song of Songs.[42]

    Condemnation of 1277 and subsequent canonization

    In 1277, the same bishop of France, Etienne Tempier, who had issued the condemnation of 1270 issued another, more extensive condemnation. One aim of this condemnation was to clarify that God’s absolute power transcended any principles of logic that Aristotle or Averroes might place on it.[43] More specifically, it contained a list of 219 propositions that the bishop had determined to violate the omnipotence of God, and included in this list were twenty Thomistic propositions. Their inclusion badly damaged Thomas’s reputation for many years.[44]

    In The Divine Comedy, Dante sees the glorified spirit of Thomas in the Heaven of the Sun with the other great exemplars of religious wisdom.[45] Dante asserts that Thomas died by poisoning, on the order of Charles of Anjou;[46] Villani (ix. 218) cites this belief, and the Anonimo Fiorentino describes the crime and its motive. But the historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori reproduces the account made by one of Thomas’s friends, and this version of the story gives no hint of foul play.[47]

    Fifty years after the death of Thomas, Pope John XXII, seated in Avignon, pronounced Thomas a saint.[48] Thomas’s theology had begun its rise to prestige. Two centuries later, in 1567, Pope Pius V proclaimed St. Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and ranked his feast with those of the four great Latin fathers: Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, Jerome, and Gregory. However, in the same period the Council of Trent would still turn to Duns Scotus before Thomas as a source of arguments in defence of the Church. Even though Duns Scotus was more consulted at the Council of Trent, Thomas had the honor of having his Summa Theologica placed on the altar alongside the Bible and the Decretals.[44]

    In his encyclical of 4 August 1879, Pope Leo XIII stated that Thomas’s theology was a definitive exposition of Catholic doctrine. Thus, he directed the clergy to take the teachings of Thomas as the basis of their theological positions. Leo XIII also decreed that all Catholic seminaries and universities must teach Thomas’s doctrines, and where Thomas did not speak on a topic, the teachers were “urged to teach conclusions that were reconcilable with his thinking.” In 1880, Saint Thomas Aquinas was declared patron of all Catholic educational establishments.

    In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St. Januarius, a cell in which he supposedly lived is still shown to visitors. His remains were placed in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse in 1369. Between 1789 and 1974, they were held in Basilique de Saint-Sernin, Toulouse. In 1974, they were returned to the Church of the Jacobins, where they have remained ever since.

    In the General Roman Calendar of 1962,in the Roman Catholic Church, Thomas was commemorated on 7 March, the day of death. However, in the General Roman Calendar of 1969, even though the norm in the Roman Catholic Church is to remember saints on the day of their death, Thomas’s memorial was transferred to 28 January, the date of the translation of his relics to Toulouse.[49]

    Saint Thomas Aquinas is honored with a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on January 28.

    Philosophy

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    Main article: Thomism

    By profession, Thomas was a theologian rather than a philosopher. Indeed he nowhere characterizes himself as a philosopher, and the references to philosophers found in his own work refer to pagans rather than Christians.[50] He was, nonetheless, a masterfully skilled philosopher.[51] Much of his work bears upon philosophical topics, and in this sense may be characterized as philosophical. Thomas’s philosophical thought has exerted enormous influence on subsequent Christian theology, especially that of the Roman Catholic Church, extending to Western philosophy in general. Thomas stands as a vehicle and modifier of Aristotelianism, Augustinian Neoplatonism and Proclean Neoplatonism.

    Commentaries on Aristotle

    Thomas wrote several important commentaries on Aristotle, including On the Soul, Nicomachean Ethics and Metaphysics. His work is associated with William of Moerbeke’s translations of Aristotle from Greek into Latin.

     Epistemology

    Thomas believed “that for the knowledge of any truth whatsoever man needs divine help, that the intellect may be moved by God to its act.”[52] However, he believed that human beings have the natural capacity to know many things without special divine revelation, even though such revelation occurs from time to time, “especially in regard to [topics of] a faith.”[53]

     Revelation

    Thomas believed that truth is known through reason (natural revelation) and faith (supernatural revelation). Supernatural revelation has its origin in the inspiration of the Holy Spirit and is made available through the teaching of the prophets, summed up in Holy Scripture, and transmitted by the Magisterium, the sum of which is called “Tradition”. Natural revelation is the truth available to all people through their human nature; certain truths all men can attain from correct human reasoning. For example, he felt this applied to rational ways to know the existence of God.

    Though one may deduce the existence of God and his Attributes (One, Truth, Good, Power, Knowledge) through reason, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation (such as the Trinity). In Thomas’s view, special revelation is equivalent to the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the Church and the Scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced.

    Supernatural revelation (faith) and natural revelation (reason) are complementary rather than contradictory in nature, for they pertain to the same unity: truth.

     Creation

    Thomas believed life could form from non living material or plant life, a theory of ongoing abiogenesis known as spontaneous generation:

    Since the generation of one thing is the corruption of another, it was not incompatible with the first formation of things, that from the corruption of the less perfect the more perfect should be generated. Hence animals generated from the corruption of inanimate things, or of plants, may have been generated then.[54]

    Additionally, Thomas considered Empedocles‘ theory that various mutated species emerged at the dawn of Creation. Thomas reasoned that these species were generated through mutations in animal sperm, and argued that they were not unintended by nature; rather, such species were simply not intended for perpetual existence. This discussion is found in his commentary on Aristotle’s Physics:

    The same thing is true of those substances which Empedocles said were produced at the beginning of the world, such as the ‘ox-progeny’, i.e., half ox and half man. For if such things were not able to arrive at some end and final state of nature so that they would be preserved in existence, this was not because nature did not intend this [a final state], but because they were not capable of being preserved. For they were not generated according to nature, but by the corruption of some natural principle, as it now also happens that some monstrous offspring are generated because of the corruption of seed.[55]

     Ethics

    Thomas’s ethics are based on the concept of “first principles of action.”[56] In his Summa Theologica, he wrote:

    Virtue denotes a certain perfection of a power. Now a thing’s perfection is considered chiefly in regard to its end. But the end of power is act. Wherefore power is said to be perfect, according as it is determinate to its act.[57]

    Thomas defined the four cardinal virtues as prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude. The cardinal virtues are natural and revealed in nature, and they are binding on everyone. There are, however, three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. These are supernatural and are distinct from other virtues in their object, namely, God:

    Now the object of the theological virtues is God Himself, Who is the last end of all, as surpassing the knowledge of our reason. On the other hand, the object of the intellectual and moral virtues is something comprehensible to human reason. Wherefore the theological virtues are specifically distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues.[58]

    Furthermore, Thomas distinguished four kinds of law: eternal, natural, human, and divine. Eternal law is the decree of God that governs all creation. Natural law is the human “participation” in the eternal law and is discovered by reason.[59] Natural law, of course, is based on “first principles”:

    . . . this is the first precept of the law, that good is to be done and promoted, and evil is to be avoided. All other precepts of the natural law are based on this . . .[60]

    The desires to live and to procreate are counted by Thomas among those basic (natural) human values on which all human values are based. However, Thomas was vehemently opposed to non-procreative sexual activity. This lead him to view masturbation, oral sex, and even coitus interruptus, as being worse than incest and rape when the act itself is considered (apart from the abuse suffered by the violated party). He also objected to sexual positions other than the missionary position, on the assumption that they made conception more difficult.[61][62][63]

    Human law is positive law: the natural law applied by governments to societies. Divine law is the specially revealed law in the scriptures.

    Thomas also greatly influenced Catholic understandings of mortal and venial sins.

    Thomas denied that human beings have any duty of charity to animals because they are not persons. Otherwise, it would be unlawful to use them for food. But this does not give us license to be cruel to them, for “cruel habits might carry over into our treatment of human beings.”[64]

    Thomas contributed to economic thought as an aspect of ethics and justice. He dealt with the concept of a just price, normally its market price or a regulated price sufficient to cover seller costs of production. He argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices simply because buyers were in pressing need for a product.[65][66]

     Theology

    17th century sculpture of Thomas Aquinas

    Thomas viewed theology, or the sacred doctrine, as a science,[35] the raw material data of which consists of written scripture and the tradition of the Catholic Church. These sources of data were produced by the self-revelation of God to individuals and groups of people throughout history. Faith and reason, while distinct but related, are the two primary tools for processing the data of theology. Thomas believed both were necessary — or, rather, that the confluence of both was necessary — for one to obtain true knowledge of God. Thomas blended Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine by suggesting that rational thinking and the study of nature, like revelation, were valid ways to understand truths pertaining to God. According to Thomas, God reveals himself through nature, so to study nature is to study God. The ultimate goals of theology, in Thomas’s mind, are to use reason to grasp the truth about God and to experience salvation through that truth.

    Nature of God

    Thomas believed that the existence of God is neither obvious nor unprovable. In the Summa Theologica, he considered in great detail five reasons for the existence of God. These are widely known as the quinque viae, or the “Five Ways.”

    Concerning the nature of God, Thomas felt the best approach, commonly called the via negativa, is to consider what God is not. This led him to propose five statements about the divine qualities:

    1. God is simple, without composition of parts, such as body and soul, or matter and form.[67]
    2. God is perfect, lacking nothing. That is, God is distinguished from other beings on account of God’s complete actuality.[68]
    3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size and infinity of number.[69]
    4. God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of God’s essence and character.[70]
    5. God is one, without diversification within God’s self. The unity of God is such that God’s essence is the same as God’s existence. In Thomas’s words, “in itself the proposition ‘God exists’ is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are the same.”[71]

    In this approach, he is following, among others, the Jewish philosopher Maimonides.[72]

    Following St. Augustine of Hippo, Thomas defines sin as “a word, deed, or desire, contrary to the eternal law.”[73] It is important to note the analogous nature of law in Thomas’s legal philosophy. Natural law is an instance or instantiation of eternal law. Because natural law is that which human beings determine according to their own nature (as rational beings), disobeying reason is disobeying natural law and eternal law. Thus eternal law is logically prior to reception of either “natural law” (that determined by reason) or “divine law” (that found in the Old and New Testaments). In other words, God’s will extends to both reason and revelation. Sin is abrogating either one’s own reason, on the one hand, or revelation on the other, and is synonymous with “evil” (privation of good, or privatio boni[74]). Thomas, like all Scholastics, generally argued that the findings of reason and data of revelation cannot conflict, so both are a guide to God’s will for human beings.

    Nature of the Trinity

    Thomas argued that God, while perfectly united, also is perfectly described by Three Interrelated Persons. These three persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) are constituted by their relations within the essence of God. The Father generates the Son (or the Word) by the relation of self-awareness. This eternal generation then produces an eternal Spirit “who enjoys the divine nature as the Love of God, the Love of the Father for the Word.”

    This Trinity exists independently from the world. It transcends the created world, but the Trinity also decided to communicate God’s self and God’s goodness to human beings. This takes place through the Incarnation of the Word in the person of Jesus Christ and through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (indeed, the very essence of the Trinity itself) within those who have experienced salvation by God.[75]

     Prima Causa – First Cause

    Thomas’s five proofs for the existence of God take some of Aristotle’s assertions concerning principles of being. For Thomas, God as Prima Causa (first cause) comes from Aristotle’s concept of the Unmoved Mover and asserts that God is the ultimate cause of all things.[76]

    Nature of Jesus Christ

    In the Summa Theologica, Thomas begins his discussion of Jesus Christ by recounting the biblical story of Adam and Eve and by describing the negative effects of original sin. The purpose of Christ’s Incarnation was to restore human nature by removing “the contamination of sin”, which humans cannot do by themselves. “Divine Wisdom judged it fitting that God should become man, so that thus one and the same person would be able both to restore man and to offer satisfaction.”[77] Thomas argued in favor of the satisfaction view of atonement; that is, that Jesus Christ died “to satisfy for the whole human race, which was sentenced to die on account of sin.”[78]

    Thomas argued against several specific contemporary and historical theologians who held differing views about Christ. In response to Photinus, Thomas stated that Jesus was truly divine and not simply a human being. Against Nestorius, who suggested that Son of God was merely conjoined to the man Christ, Thomas argued that the fullness of God was an integral part of Christ’s existence. However, countering Apollinaris‘ views, Thomas held that Christ had a truly human (rational) soul, as well. This produced a duality of natures in Christ. Thomas argued against Eutyches that this duality persisted after the Incarnation. Thomas stated that these two natures existed simultaneously yet distinguishably in one real human body, unlike the teachings of Manichaeus and Valentinus.[79]

    In short, “Christ had a real body of the same nature of ours, a true rational soul, and, together with these, perfect Deity.” Thus, there is both unity (in his one hypostasis) and diversity (in his two natures, human and Divine) in Christ.[80]

    Echoing Athanasius of Alexandria, he said that “The only begotten Son of God…assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods.”[81]

     Goal of human life

    In Thomas’s thought, the goal of human existence is union and eternal fellowship with God. Specifically, this goal is achieved through the beatific vision, an event in which a person experiences perfect, unending happiness by seeing the very essence of God. This vision, which occurs after death, is a gift from God given to those who have experienced salvation and redemption through Christ while living on earth.

    This ultimate goal carries implications for one’s present life on earth. Thomas stated that an individual’s will must be ordered toward right things, such as charity, peace, and holiness. He sees this as the way to happiness. Thomas orders his treatment of the moral life around the idea of happiness. The relationship between will and goal is antecedent in nature “because rectitude of the will consists in being duly ordered to the last end [that is, the beatific vision].” Those who truly seek to understand and see God will necessarily love what God loves. Such love requires morality and bears fruit in everyday human choices.[82]

    Treatment of heretics

    Thomas Aquinas belonged to the Ordo Praedicatorum (commonly known as the Dominicans), whose primary goal is the peaceful conversion of the Albigensian heretics. In the Summa Theologica, he wrote:

    With regard to heretics two points must be observed: one, on their own side; the other, on the side of the Church. On their own side there is the sin, whereby they deserve not only to be separated from the Church by excommunication, but also to be severed from the world by death. For it is a much graver matter to corrupt the faith which quickens the soul, than to forge money, which supports temporal life. Wherefore if forgers of money and other evil-doers are forthwith condemned to death by the secular authority, much more reason is there for heretics, as soon as they are convicted of heresy, to be not only excommunicated but even put to death. On the part of the Church, however, there is mercy which looks to the conversion of the wanderer, wherefore she condemns not at once, but “after the first and second admonition,” as the Apostle directs: after that, if he is yet stubborn, the Church no longer hoping for his conversion, looks to the salvation of others, by excommunicating him and separating him from the Church, and furthermore delivers him to the secular tribunal… (Summa, II-II, Q.11, art.3.)

    Heresy was against the secular law in most European countries of the 13th century. Thomas’s suggestion specifically demands that heretics be handed to a “secular tribunal” rather than magisterial authority. That Thomas specifically says that heretics “deserve… death” is concerning his theology, where all sinners do not deserve life (“For the wages of sin is death; but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord”[83]). He elaborates on his opinion regarding heresy in the next article, when he says:

    In God’s tribunal, those who return are always received, because God is a searcher of hearts, and knows those who return in sincerity. But the Church cannot imitate God in this, for she presumes that those who relapse after being once received, are not sincere in their return; hence she does not debar them from the way of salvation, but neither does she protect them from the sentence of death. (Summa, op. cit., art.4.)

     Modern influence

    Many modern ethicists both within and outside the Catholic Church (notably Philippa Foot and Alasdair MacIntyre) have recently commented on the possible use of Thomas’s virtue ethics as a way of avoiding utilitarianism or Kantian “sense of duty” (called deontology). Through the work of twentieth century philosophers such as Elizabeth Anscombe (especially in her book Intention), Thomas’s principle of double effect specifically and his theory of intentional activity generally have been influential.

    In recent years, the cognitive neuroscientist Walter Freeman proposes that Thomism is the philosophical system explaining cognition that is most compatible with neurodynamics, in a 2008 article in the journal Mind and Matter entitled “Nonlinear Brain Dynamics and Intention According to Aquinas.”

    It is remarkable that Thomas’s aesthetic theories, especially the concept of claritas, deeply influenced the literary practice of modernist writer James Joyce, who used to extol Thomas as being second only to Aristotle among Western philosophers. The influence of Thomas’s aesthetics also can be found in the works of the Italian semiotician Umberto Eco, who wrote an essay on aesthetic ideas in Thomas (published in 1956 and republished in 1988 in a revised edition).

    Mk 4:26-34

    Gospel

    Jesus said to the crowds: “This is how it is with the Kingdom of God; it is as if a man were to scatter seed on the land and would sleep and rise night and day and the seed would sprout and grow, he knows not how. Of its own accord the land yields fruit, first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear. And when the grain is ripe, he wields the sickle at once, for the harvest has come.” He said, “To what shall we compare the Kingdom of God, or what parable can we use for it? It is like a mustard seed that, when it is sown in the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on the earth. But once it is sown, it springs up and becomes the largest of plants and puts forth large branches, so that the birds of the sky can dwell in its shade.” With many such parables he spoke the word to them as they were able to understand it. Without parables he did not speak to them, but to his own disciples he explained everything in private.

    Mk 4:21-25

    Gospel

    Jesus said to his disciples, “Is a lamp brought in to be placed under a bushel basket or under a bed, and not to be placed on a lampstand? For there is nothing hidden except to be made visible; nothing is secret except to come to light. Anyone who has ears to hear ought to hear.” He also told them, “Take care what you hear. The measure with which you measure will be measured out to you, and still more will be given to you. To the one who has, more will be given; from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”

     

    Mk 4:1-20

    Gospel

    On another occasion, Jesus began to teach by the sea. A very large crowd gathered around him so that he got into a boat on the sea and sat down. And the whole crowd was beside the sea on land. And he taught them at length in parables, and in the course of his instruction he said to them, “Hear this! A sower went out to sow. And as he sowed, some seed fell on the path, and the birds came and ate it up. Other seed fell on rocky ground where it had little soil. It sprang up at once because the soil was not deep. And when the sun rose, it was scorched and it withered for lack of roots. Some seed fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked it and it produced no grain. And some seed fell on rich soil and produced fruit. It came up and grew and yielded thirty, sixty, and a hundredfold.” He added, “Whoever has ears to hear ought to hear.” And when he was alone, those present along with the Twelve questioned him about the parables. He answered them, “The mystery of the Kingdom of God has been granted to you. But to those outside everything comes in parables, so that they may look and see but not perceive, and hear and listen but not understand, in order that they may not be converted and be forgiven.” Jesus said to them, “Do you not understand this parable? Then how will you understand any of the parables? The sower sows the word. These are the ones on the path where the word is sown. As soon as they hear, Satan comes at once and takes away the word sown in them. And these are the ones sown on rocky ground who, when they hear the word, receive it at once with joy. But they have no roots; they last only for a time. Then when tribulation or persecution comes because of the word, they quickly fall away. Those sown among thorns are another sort. They are the people who hear the word, but worldly anxiety, the lure of riches, and the craving for other things intrude and choke the word, and it bears no fruit. But those sown on rich soil are the ones who hear the word and accept it and bear fruit thirty and sixty and a hundredfold.”

     

    Memorial of Saint Timothy and Saint Titus, bishops

    Timothy (Greek: Τιμόθεος; Timótheos, meaning “honouring God”[1]) was a first-century Jewish Christian bishop who died around the year 80. The New Testament indicates that Timothy traveled with Saint Paul, who was also his mentor. He is addressed as the recipient of the Epistles to Timothy. Contents [hide] 1 Life 2 Veneration 3 References 4 External links [edit] Life Timothy is mentioned in the Bible at the time of Paul’s second visit to Lystra in Anatolia, where Timothy is mentioned as a “disciple”.[2] Paul, impressed by his “own son in the faith,” arranged that he should become his companion. Unlike Paul, Timothy had not however been circumcised, and Paul now ensured that this was done, according to the text, to ensure Timothy’s acceptability to the Jews. According to McGarvey[3] Paul performed the operation “with his own hand”, but others claim this is unlikely and nowhere attested[citation needed]. He was ordained[4] and went with Paul on his journeys through Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia, Troas, Philippi, Veria, and Corinth. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, are noted as eminent for their piety and faith,[5] which indicates that they were also likely Jewish Christians. Timothy is praised by Paul for his knowledge of the Scriptures (in the 1st century mostly the Septuagint, see Development of the New Testament canon#Clement of Rome), and is said to have been acquainted with the Scriptures since childhood.[6] Little is known about Timothy’s father; only that he was Greek.[7] Rembrandt’s Timothy and his grandmother, 1648.According to later tradition, Paul consecrated Timothy as bishop of Ephesus in the year 65, where he served for 15 years. In the year 80 (though some sources place the event during the year 97, with Timothy dying at age 80), Timothy tried to halt a pagan procession of idols, ceremonies, and songs. In response to his preaching of the gospel, the angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, and stoned him to death. In the 4th century, his relics were transferred to the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. [edit] Veneration Timothy is venerated as an apostle, saint and martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church, with his feast day on 22 January. The Roman Catholic calendar of saints venerates Timothy together with Titus with a memorial on 26 January. In the General Roman Calendar of 1962, his feast, a third class, is kept on 24 January. Along with Titus and Silas, he is commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and The Episcopal Church on 26 January. Timothy’s feast is kept by the Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod on 24 January.

    Saint Titus was a companion of Saint Paul, mentioned in several of the Pauline epistles. Titus was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch and accompanied them to the Council of Jerusalem,[1] although his name occurs nowhere in the Acts of the Apostles.

    He appears to have been a Gentile – for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, because Paul believed Christ’s gospel freed believers from the requirements of the Mosaic Law (see Abrogation of Old Covenant laws) — and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles. At a later period, Paul’s epistles place him with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there on behalf of the poor Christians at Jerusalem sent forward.[2] He rejoined Paul when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth.[3] After this his name is not mentioned until after Paul’s first imprisonment, when he was engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where Paul had left him for this purpose.[4] The last notice of him is in 2 Timothy 4:10, where he leaves Paul in Rome in order to travel to Dalmatia. The New Testament does not record his death.

    According to tradition, Paul ordained Titus bishop of Gortyn in Crete. He died in the year 107, aged about 95.

    It has been argued that the name “Titus” in 2 Corinthians and Galatians is nothing more than an informal name used by Timothy, implied already by the fact that even though both are said to be long-term close companions of Paul, they never appear in common scenes.[5] The theory proposes that a number of passages—1 Cor. 4:17, 16.10; 2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6, 13-14, 12:18; and Acts 19.22—all refer to the same journey of a single individual, Titus-Timothy. Paul’s Epistle 2 Timothy seems to dispute this, by claiming that Titus has gone to Dalmatia.[6]

    The feast day of Titus was not included in the Tridentine Calendar. When added in 1854, it was assigned to 6 February.[7] In 1969, the Roman Catholic Church assigned the feast to 26 January so as to celebrate the two disciples of Paul, Titus and Saint Timothy, on the day after the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul.[8] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America celebrates these two, together with Silas, on the same date. The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him on 25 August and on 4 January.

    His relics, now consisting of only his skull, are venerated in the Church of St. Titus, Heraklion, Crete to which it was returned in 1966[9] after being removed to Venice during the Turkish occupation.

    Gospel

    After John had been arrested,
    Jesus came to Galilee proclaiming the Gospel of God:
    “This is the time of fulfillment.
    The Kingdom of God is at hand.
    Repent, and believe in the Gospel.”

    As he passed by the Sea of Galilee,
    he saw Simon and his brother Andrew casting their nets into the sea;
    they were fishermen.
    Jesus said to them,
    “Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men.”
    Then they left their nets and followed him.
    He walked along a little farther
    and saw James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John.
    They too were in a boat mending their nets.
    Then he called them.
    So they left their father Zebedee in the boat
    along with the hired men and followed him.

    Gospel

     

    Jesus and his disciples went into the region of Judea,
    where he spent some time with them baptizing.
    John was also baptizing in Aenon near Salim,
    because there was an abundance of water there,
    and people came to be baptized,
    for John had not yet been imprisoned.
    Now a dispute arose between the disciples of John and a Jew
    about ceremonial washings.
    So they came to John and said to him,
    “Rabbi, the one who was with you across the Jordan,
    to whom you testified,
    here he is baptizing and everyone is coming to him.”
    John answered and said,
    “No one can receive anything except what has been given from heaven.
    You yourselves can testify that I said that I am not the Christ,
    but that I was sent before him.
    The one who has the bride is the bridegroom;
    the best man, who stands and listens for him,
    rejoices greatly at the bridegroom’s voice.
    So this joy of mine has been made complete.
    He must increase; I must decrease.”